Derinkuyu & The Underground Cities of Cappadocia

Derinkuyu Underground City Anatolia Turkey

In 1963, a man in the Nevşehir Province of Turkey knocked down a wall of his home. Behind it, he discovered a mysterious room. The man continued digging and soon discovered an intricate tunnel system with additional cave-like rooms. What he had discovered was the ancient Derinkuyu underground city, part of the Cappadocia region in central Anatolia, Turkey.

The elaborate subterranean network included discrete entrances, ventilation shafts, wells, and connecting passageways. It was one of dozens of underground cities carved from the rock in Cappadocia thousands of years ago. Hidden for centuries, Derinkuyu‘s underground city is the deepest.

cover photo illustration of Derinkuyu sister city Kaymakli

Cappadocia Turkey
Rose Valley of Cappadocia (courtesy Bjørn Christian Tørrissen)



Derinkuyu Cappadocia Turkey underground tunnels
Cappadocia, Turkey

The Cappadocia region of Anatolia is rich in volcanic history and sits on a plateau around 3,300 feet (1,000m) tall.

The area was buried in ash millions of years ago creating the lava domes and rough pyramids seen today. Erosion of the sedimentary rock left pocked spires and stone minarets.

Volcanic ash deposits consist of a softer rock – something the Hittites of Cappadocia discovered thousands of years ago when they began carving out rooms from the rock. It began with storage and underground food lockers; the subterranean voids maintained a constant temperature, protecting the contents from exposure to harsher surface weather extremes.

Cappadocia, Turkey
Cappadocia, Turkey
Derinkuyu Cappadocia Turkey underground tunnels cities
One of many hidden entrances to Derinkuyu

The underground tunneling would also serve a bigger purpose: Protect the Hittites from attack. The exact dates are unknown, but estimates range the tunnels first appeared between the 15th century and 12th century BCE. The Hittites were believed to have used the tunnels to hide from Phrygian raids.

Those who subscribe to this theory point to the historic account of the Phrygian destruction of Hittite city Hattusa, along with the identification of a small number of Hittite-related artifacts found in the tunnels.

An alternative suggestion has the Phrygians first building the tunnels later, between the 8th and 7th centuries BCE. They explain the discovered Hittite artifacts as being remnants from the spoils of war.

This theory is reinforced by reputation: Phrygian architects are considered by archaeologists to be among the finest of the Iron Age, and known to have engaged in complex construction projects.

Derinkuyu Cappadocia Turkey underground tunnels citiesBecause the Phrygians are known to have possessed the necessary skills and inhabited the region for a long time, they are often credited with first creating the underground city at Derinkuyu.

[Side Bar: Phrygia was known for stories of its heroic kings in mythology, one of the more well-known being the tale of King Midas.]

Less popular is the theory the underground city was the work of the Persians.

Although no direct reference is made to Derinkuyu, the second chapter of the Vendidad (part of the Zoroastrian Avesta) includes a story of “the great and mythical Persian king Yima” who “created palaces underground to house flocks, herds, and men.”

Derinkuyu Cappadocia Turkey underground tunnels cities
Nevşehir Province of Turkey

But with no other evidence, this theory has struggled to gain traction among the cognoscenti.

The oldest written reference to the underground cities of Cappadocia was by Xenophon in Anabasis. He mentions the Anatolian people living underground in excavated homes large enough for entire families, their food, and animals.

Because the city was carved from naturally-formed rock, traditional archaeological methods of dating the underground city would fail to discern the origins.

Town photos courtesy Justin Ames

Derinkuyu Cappadocia Turkey underground tunnels
An illustration depicting the underground cities of Cappadocia


Map it!


Derinkuyu Cappadocia Turkey underground tunnels citiesArchaeologists believe the underground cities of Cappadocia could number in the hundreds. To date, just six have been excavated.

The underground city at Derinkuyu is neither the largest nor oldest, but it fascinates as it is the deepest of the underground cities and was only recently discovered in 1963. (The largest, Kaymakli, has been inhabited continuously since first constructed).

While there is no consensus for who is responsible for building Derinkuyu, many groups have occupied the underground city over the centuries. It is believed Derinkuyu was later expanded during the Byzantine era (330-1461 CE).

During this time the underground city was known as Malakopea (Greek: Μαλακοπέα). Early Christians used the tunnels to escape persecution during raids from the Muslim Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties.

Derinkuyu underground tunnels map
Tourist map of Derinkuyu Underground City (en Español)

Over time the need for underground shelter in Cappadocia ebbed and flowed with different ruling empires. In peacetime tunneling efforts were reduced as resources were diverted back toward the surface. During these times the subterranean city served as cold storage facilities and underground barns.

During the Roman persecutions of the 2nd and 3rd centuries (and the Arab raids between the 8th and 10th centuries) CE, use of the underground cities increased and tunnels were expanded.

photos courtesy thingshappendownhere


Underground City Features

Derinkuyu Cappadocia Turkey underground tunnels
Derinkuyu underground tunnels

Derinkuyu is the deepest of the discovered underground cities with eight floors – reaching depths of 280 feet (85m) – currently open to the public. Excavation is incomplete but archaeologists estimate Derinkuyu could contain up to 18 subterranean levels.

Miles of tunnels are blackened from centuries of burning torches. They were strategically carved narrow to force would-be invaders to crawl single-file. Eventually the tunnels reach hundreds of caves large enough to shelter tens of thousands of people.

The build-out of Derinkuyu accommodated for churches, food stores, livestock stalls, wine cellars, and schools. Temporary graveyards were constructed to hold the dead; an ironic twist, bodies were stored underground until it was safe to return them the surface. Over one hundred unique entrances to Derinkuyu are hidden behind bushes, walls, and courtyards of surface dwellings. Access points were blocked by large circular stone doors, up to 5 feet (1.5m) in diameter and weighing up to 1,100 lbs (500 kilos).

The stone doors (pictured below) protected the underground city from surface threats, and were installed so each level could be sealed individually. The tunneling architects included thousands of ventilation shafts varying in size up to 100 feet deep (30m).

derinkuyu cappadocia underground tunnels
circular stones would seal access to the passageways (courtesy thingshappendownhere)

An underground river filled wells while a rudimentary irrigation system transported drinking water.

Derinkuyu was more than just residences, storage, and tunnels. When residents fled underground, business continued as usual. Commercial spaces included communal meeting areas, dining rooms, grocers, religious places for worship – even shopping. Arsenals stored weapon caches while hidden escape routes offered residents a last-chance for a getaway.


Unique to Derinkuyu

On the second floor a barrel-vaulted ceiling tops a spacious room believed to have been a religious school. Rooms to the left provided individual studies.

A staircase between the third and fourth levels takes visitors to a cruciform church measuring approximately 65 x 30 ft (20m x 9m) in size.

Derinkuyu Cappadocia Turkey underground tunnels shaft well
Shaft which served as primary well at Derinkuyu

A large 180-ft (55m) shaft (pictured above) was likely used as the primary well – both for residents underground and on the surface. To prevent any surface aggressor attempt to poison drinking water, control of the water supply originated from the lower floors and moved upward, with lower floors able to cut-off supply to upper levels.

On the third level a 3 mile-long (5 km) tunnel connected Derinkuyu to nearby underground city Kaymakli – although it is no longer functioning as parts of this tunnel have collapsed.

(click thumbnails to enlarge)

  photos courtesy thingshappendownhere


Tourism & Derinkuyu Today

Derinkuyu Cappadocia Turkey underground tunnels cities
Another hidden entrance to the underground city of Derinkuyu.

The name Derinkuyu roughly translates to “deep well” – apropos given the surface city lacked running water until only recently.

A declining water table created fears of water shortages in the mid-20th century; it wasn’t until 1965 the surface city finally received the infrastructure for running water.

[ Derinkuyu visitor guide ]

Derinkuyu was opened to visitors in 1969, but only about 10% of the underground city is accessible to tourists today. The underground city is open to visitors daily during the summer from 8 a.m. until 7 p.m. Winter hours are from 8 a.m. until 5 p.m. 2014 entrance fees are 15 Turkish Lira (or about $7/£4/€5).

A guided tour is more expensive, but recommended as there is little information within the city itself to indicate what one is observing. Independent local guides will sometimes loiter near the entrance waiting to be hired. The Green Tour (or South Cappadocia Tour) is a highly-rated and popular option. Alternatively, private 2-hour tours are also available.

[ Cappadocia tour options ] [ Additional travel resource ]

derinkuyu underground tunnels
Underground tunnel in Derinkuyu, Turkey

photos courtesy thingshappendownhere



    • Nice! I’m happy I was able to accidentally feature something right up your alley, ha. Thanks for reading. 🙂

      Thanks for the feedback on the tourism section. I’ve been considering adding this info to future posts (when it would be applicable, of course.)

    • I’m a caver who has been here. It’s not a cave, but a man made cavern – sort of like a mine. You won’t find any natural features here. It is not at all cavelike. It can get really crowded as it’s pretty tight down there.

      • “This, my friends, is the home of my cousin Balin… and they call it a mine. A MINE!”

  1. ah what an fantastic post and no the tourism part isn’t too sales-pitchy. it is good addition to the post for those who wish to visit there someday. keep up the good work and thanks for this awesome site

  2. It always amazes me the work that can be done with the hand of man. The thought process and engineering behind these tunnels is absolutely incredible! Great post- You have blown me away with your writing skills again!

  3. Wow I have never heard of this place at all this is amazing I would love to go there and see it one day. I wonder how many people know about entraces they have found and kept secret 😀

  4. Fascinating–thanks for writing this. The touristy bit at the end was only a mention, giving information we might find helpful. I was glad to know you can actually go down into the city. Well written and researched.

  5. Interesting! Never heard about it. Has the National Geographic done a feature on it before? I volunteer for them if there was sponsorship ☺
    Nicely written. Not too detailed or sales like. Only suggestion – a small map of Turkey showing where it is so those not familiar can place it.

  6. Wow, how amazing….I’m sure I’ve seen these before but had no idea about the tunnels. I would definitely pay to explore these 🙂

  7. Soooo interesting! The tourism part was a nice add-on… just enough information without being sales-pitchy. I especially like the part about independent local guides.

  8. Reblogged this on Currently Unavailable and commented:
    This is kind of amazing to me. Seeing how people who lived so long ago tackled all the engineering issues that would come up when making a structure like this is so fascinating. This is as impressive to me as the Pyramids of Giza.

  9. I was going to message you to thank you for spending so much time at my site. Admittedly my pieces are shorter than yours but still I am grateful for the time spent. In the meantime I stumble upon this piece. Love archeology. One of my fantasy trips is going on an archaeologic dig. It’s amazing to me how many sites are being found with deep foundations suggesting whole societies that existed at a site possibly long before the one’s we think we’re researching. On an almost unrelated note, as it does have to do with discovered tunnels in someone’s home, I’m sure you’ve seen this:

    When I searched for this site, your site and this article popped up in my google search on the first page. Well done. A very Happy Thanksgiving to you.

    • a belated thank you Noelle, and the same to you! Thanks for the link, I was not familiar with this one. Need to look into this further, and I can see why you posted it here. 🙂

  10. What an interesting article… I been reading up on underground findings and this one is one of the better ones. Thank you!

  11. Can you tell me where you got the information that the caverns were discovered in a man’s home?

    • Hello Leigh. It’s from Alan Weisman’s book “The World Without Us.” In it, he writes:

      “No one knows how many underground cities lie beneath Cappadocia. Eight have been discovered, and many smaller villages, but there are doubtless more. The biggest, Derinkuyu, wasn’t discovered until 1965, when a resident cleaning the back wall of his cave house broke through a wall and discovered behind it a room that he’d never seen, which led to still another, and another. Eventually, spelunking archeologists found a maze of connecting chambers that descended at least 18 stories and 280 feet beneath the surface, ample enough to hold 30,000 people – and much remains to be excavated.”

      Typically I link when I can, but this was from a physical book I checked out at the library.

  12. I am absolutely in love with the history, mysteries and silence of this gorgeous place. To know that there is so much yet to be discovered. Did I read that right, people are currently live in this abandoned city? If not, could it be considered habitable? If there was a war, famine, drought, natural disaster of any kind, could people find safety and shelter there, and for how long would it be safe? Was oxygen supply an issue? I was looking to see if there were any air shafts etc. Excellent writing, superb photos, although I am so intrigued I plan to research more 🙂 . also I don’t believe you were to sales pitchy, that helped me decide its not too expensive and perhaps an obtainable vacation destination 🙂 thanks so much and keep up the great work!!

    • Thanks for the comment and feedback Danielle, all good questions. To my knowledge people do not still live in the tunnels en masse, although you might have a few down on their luck who have made use of them. As far as habitation today, I imagine it would be possible but more difficult as we’ve become used to greater creature comforts over the years. And of course there are concerns of how sanitary an unmaintained tunnel system would of this vintage would be. Good luck on your further research, it’s a fascinating topic!

  13. how would anyone know if you just visist the town and the underground city the fact that I live here is completly another story thank you

  14. Been to Turkey many times and have never heard of this place, I have googled the city and now know where to go so I can visit this amazing place.

    Well witten and informative

  15. I’m interested in writing science fiction, and one of the first alien races I want to create was a group of underground pygmy humanoids. Your article as of great help in adding a tinge of realism to my writing, thank you.

  16. I love how u did it i love it and am using for a school project!

  17. I just discovered your post on these underground hand carved cities in Turkey. Thank you very much for hosting such wonderful places to go visit. This is definitely on my bucket list now. And the prompters re acquiring a local guide are helpful and very much appreciated!

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