Scattered across the United States are a network of mysterious concrete arrows. They are often found in remote locations or areas difficult to access. Some will be accompanied by a small shack, a few have a metal tower affixed to their base. Many are in good condition while others have succumbed to nature. The shape and direction of the arrows vary, but it is clear they served the same purpose.

The purpose was important: helping early pilots navigate U.S. transcontinental flights at night.

In a era before radar, pilots used ground-based landmarks for guidance. This solution worked for flight during the day, but grounded pilots at night. Before long, a system of beacons was established across the United States to guide airmail pilots around-the-clock. When radar and radio communications made the beacons obsolete years later, most were torn down or abandoned.


Early Airmail Beacon Route Map circa 1924. (does not include later spur routes)



In the mid-19th century the Wild West was largely unexplored. There was no infrastructure and very little law governing the land. Understandably, coast-to-coast message delivery was nonexistent.

It was not until a gold discovery in 1848 that California became the destination for tens of thousands from the east. The trip across the country was arduous, dangerous, and could take anywhere from three to six weeks.

airmail-beacon-Omaha1920sBy 1860, the Pony Express revolutionized transcontinental mail by offering delivery in about ten days. Nearly unheard-of at the time, this was faster than the more volatile southern route favored by others.

Knowledgeable frontiersmen would race across the country on horseback, covering vast distances in shorter times.

While the Pony Express was significant in that it proved the northern/central mail route was possible, it was inefficient compared to stagecoach lines. Higher costs and poor economies of scale would see the Pony Express fail to win the mail contract beyond its first year of operation.

A year later, the threat of civil war descended upon the country and resources were diverted to the conflict. When the transcontinental telegraph line was completed in 1861, it immediately rendered the Pony Express obsolete.

In the late 19th century, reliability of mail delivery improved – but not its speed. It was not until the invention of the airplane that intercontinental mail delivery witnessed its next major breakthrough.

(Click thumbnails to enlarge)

airmail-service-1926 airmail-boise-idaho airmail-beacon-airfield-Nebraska1920s

(Top to Bottom: early airmail flight, Boise Airmail Station, Intermediate Field with tower in Nebraska)


Early Aviation & Airmail

airmail-vintage-adThe Wright brothers made the first flight in 1903, and it wasn’t long before pilots adopted air transport for mail delivery.

By 1911, Fred Wiseman had conducted an unofficial airmail flight carrying three letters from Petaluma to Santa Rosa, California.

The next day, a large exhibition orchestrated by Sir Walter George Windham in British India made the first official airmail flight. Windham used the event to generate publicity and raise money for charity. His pilot, Henri Pequet, would fly just over 8 miles from Allahabad to Naini to deliver 6,500 letters.

It wasn’t until three years later the range capability of mail delivery aircraft was really tested. In July of 1914, French pilot Maurice Guillaux carried Australian mail 584 miles from Melbourne to Sydney – at the time the longest such flight in the world.

By 1918 the east coast of the United States had limited airmail service. Two years later, a North American transcontinental airmail route was finally established. On August 20th, 1920 – sixty years after the Pony Express – rapid delivery made a return to the U.S.


Beacon Tower System

airmail-beacon-designAircraft of the era lacked the advanced electronics for navigation during night flights or through inclement weather. Long before the advent of radio guidance or Instrument Flight Rules (IFR), pilots were limited to visual guidance, using landmarks to chart the route.

Flying at night was out of the question; bad weather and limited flight times meant delivery was limited and still spotty in frequency. The service was indeed faster, but it lacked flexibility and reliability of operations.

airmail-beacon-graphicBy 1924 the Postal Service developed a solution that was effective, if not elegant.

A system of ground-based navigation beacons extending from New York to San Francisco would help pilots fly across the country at night and ultimately be the world’s first such system.

The early iterations of the system used approximately 1,500 airmail beacons, each constructed roughly between 3 and 5 miles apart. The beacons featured a 50-foot tower with rotating lights placed on top of concrete foundations in the shape of giant arrows measuring between 50 and 70 feet long.

To increase visibility of the concrete arrows, they were painted bright yellow.

airmail-beacon-exampleThe first towers contained acetylene-gas powered lights which were fed by fuel stored in a shed at the base. At the top of the towers, a rotating beacon with 5,000 candlepower and would flash every ten seconds.

In clear weather the beacon lights could be seen for 10 miles (16 km). Below the main white beacon, a secondary set of red and green lights would flash a Morse Code letter to identify the beacon to pilots.

To accommodate for emergencies, intermediate landing fields were established every 25 miles along the route. The fields were constructed with rotating incandescent electric lights mounted on 50-foot towers set to sweep six times per minute. These less-common emergency field beacons were visible up to 75 miles away.

The program was an immediate success and continued to expand throughout its operational life. By the end of the first year the airmail service had 18 terminal airfields, 89 emergency airfields, and more than 500 beacon lights in operation.

(Click thumbnails to enlarge)

airmail-envelope  airmail-beacon-stamp  early-US-airmail*

Rapid Growth Until Obsolete

airmail-beacon-62In 1926 management of the beacon system was turned over to the Department of Commerce, which continued expansion or the airmail beacon system until 1929.

As technology improved, so did the towers. Later versions on spur routes were built 10 miles apart and equipped with stronger beacon lights – up to one million candlepower – making them reportedly visible up to 40 miles in clear weather.

But by the 1930s, navigation and radio technology had improved to allow flight without land-based visual guidance. The Low Frequency Radio Range (LFRR) system began to replace older visual-based systems.

The airmail beacon program would continue to operate full-scale until 1933, when technology advancements and the higher cost of operation during the Great Depression – finally rendered it obsolete.

After the program was de-funded, various beacons would continue to operate in limited capacities into the 1940s. At that time, the Department of Commerce decommissioned and disassembled the towers for their steel, a resource in short supply and desperately needed to support the war effort.

The last airway beacon was officially shut down in 1973, although the Montana Department of Transportation Aeronautics Division reportedly continues to operate around 19 updated beacons in the mountains of Western Montana.

(Click thumbnails to enlarge)

airmail-beacon-hudspeth2 airmail-beacon-9 airmail-concrete-arrow-6



Ninety years later, most of the towers have been dismantled. Many of the sites are long gone, victims of war, infrastructure growth, and aggressive private developers. During World War II, numerous concrete arrows were destroyed as well – so as to not help enemy pilots visually navigate the country.

Still, hundreds of the arrows remain. But today they lack the bright yellow paint, and the cracks in the concrete worsen with each winter freeze. Arrows on top of mountains are safe for now, but several along the highways have already been lost to redevelopment.




For the explorers out there, Sometimes Interesting has compiled a list with map links to locations with visible remains from the original airmail beacon system. This list is not meant to be comprehensive, but it does include many of the locations still visible today. (List is continually updated as submissions are received):

[ listed alphabetically by location ]


anthony-ks-concrete-arrow• A concrete arrow is all that is left of Beacon 68 just west of Albuquerque, New Mexico.

• Just outside of Anthony, Kansas the remains of a concrete arrow and a beacon tower are visible near the entrance to the municipal airport (beacon number unknown, identification & photo at right courtesy S-I reader Becky McClintock).

• The faint outline of a concrete arrow and generator shack is still visible in Battle Mountain, Nevada (beacon number unknown).

• The remains of a concrete arrow have recently been discovered and are undergoing restoration at Bethany Airport, CT (pictured below, beacon number unknown. Courtesy S-I reader Mark Scott). **We are currently searching for more information regarding this beacon and the route it serviced at Bethany Airport. Please contact us if you have more information.

Arrow at Bethany Airport, CT (photo courtesy Mark Scott)

airway-beacon-27-boise• There are a host of arrows which have been discovered around Boise, Idaho. A concrete arrow just off Interstate 84 about 25 miles SE of town is all that remains of Beacon 27. (beacon #27 photo at right courtesy S-I reader Glen Smallwood). Glen also told us about three other beacons SE of Boise: Beacon 26 is near Mountain Home municipal airport while the tower is all that’s left from Beacon 25 at the entrace to the airport. Beacon 29 is on the SE side of Boise.

• In the wilderness outside of Cheyenne, Wyoming, the remote concrete arrow of Beacon 38 sits undisturbed (pictured below, courtesy S-I reader John Breeding).

Beacon-JB1 Beacon-JB2John shared his encounter with Beacon 38: The concrete is still in amazing shape… the ‘concrete’ is basically quartz pebbles held together with cement…that arrow is going to be there for centuries if no one messes with it.  The tower supports were cut off at ground level and what appears to be the fuel oil shed foundation seems to have been broken up but is still visible. One other interesting point of note is the barren ground in the shape of the arrow just a foot or so off the edge of the concrete.  My guess is they ‘salted’ the ground there to enhance the arrow shape from the air.  Decades later there’s still nothing growing there.” Before you consider visiting, John notes this may be on private property.

• The faint remains of a concrete arrow can be seen in the defunct municipal airfield in Columbus, New Mexico (beacon number unknown).

• The concrete arrow of Beacon 33 is still visible in Cottage Grove, Minnesota. It is even visible in street view!

• The concrete arrow and generator shed at Delaware Springs Intermediate Field are still visible, deep in remote Texas. Read more about Delaware Springs Field here.

• Near Effingham, South Carolina the concrete pad of Beacon J R 28, circa 1935, is reportedly still present albeit overgrown by vegetation (courtesy S-I reader Chris Little).

• About 20 miles northeast of Ellensburg, WA, the foundation remains of a beacon can still be seen (beacon number unknown).

• Just outside of Fernley, Nevada sits a lone beacon tower missing the concrete arrow and generator shed (beacon number unknown).

• A concrete arrow is visible off Old Highway 40 near Golconda, Nevada (beacon number unknown).

• The generator shed is all that’s left of Beacon 61 in the mountains of Grants, New Mexico. The tower and concrete arrow may be gone, but you can still see “61” on the roof of the shed.

• The concrete arrow of Beacon 59 sits right off US-80 in Grantsville, Utah, southwest of the Great Salt Lake.

• About six miles east of Hanna, Wyoming are the overgrown remains of Beacon 31 from the Salt Lake Omaha Airway. Head approximately seven miles west of Hanna and you’ll find the remains of Beacon 29 barely visible and sitting just off 287. (courtesy S-I reader Glenna Hansen)

• Near Hickory, Missouri, the remains of Amber Airway 4, Beacon 7’s tower can be seen in the Nodaway Valley Conservation Area.

Concrete arrow barely visible at Hudspeth Intermediate Field

• About 55 miles east of El Paso in the middle of nowhere, Texas, the concrete arrow of Hudspeth Intermediate Field barely pokes out of the brush (pictured above). Hudspeth was constructed in the 1930s by the Department of Commerce for emergency use by airlines, but hasn’t been used in half a century.

• In Humboldt county, Nevada, the remains of an angled concrete arrow sits halfway between the Golconda and Winnemucca beacons (beacon number unknown, courtesy S-I reader Richard Woods).

• The concrete arrow with twin tails from Beacon 61A can be seen just off the Lincoln Highway in Lake Point, Utah. (pictured below, courtesy


Summit-BeaconHill3• North of I-80 outside Laramie, Wyoming, the shed and arrow from Summit Radio Beacon 38 (pictured at right) from the Salt Lake Omaha Airway are visible on Beacon Hill in the Laramie Range. The concrete arrow from Beacon 40 is also nearby, about 9 miles NW of Cheyenne. (submissions courtesy S-I reader Glenna Hansen, picture courtesy Mel Duncan).

• Faint remnants of a concrete arrow in Locomotive Springs, Utah (beacon number unknown).

• In Lovelock, Nevada, another concrete arrow can be seen (beacon number unknown).beacon-medicine-bow

• Here’s a concrete arrow off a dirt road in Meacham, Oregon (beacon number unknown).

• In Medicine Bow, Wyoming, the remains of a beacon, shed, and tower are visible but in poor repair. (Beacon number unknown, picture at right courtesy S-I reader Glenna Hansen).

• Visit the Aviation Heritage Museum of the Grants-Milan Airport in New Mexico to see Beacon 62 (originally located in Bonita Canyon) restored to its original 1930s appearance, complete with painted tower and corresponding generator shack. (pictured below).

The Aviation Heritage Museum of the Grants-Milan Airport in NM has restored this airway beacon (picture courtesy

• Up on Beacon Hill Road in the Moapa Valley region of Nevada, a concrete arrow is still visible (beacon number unknown).

• The concrete arrow of the former MX1095 Beacon can be seen just east of the airport in Montague, California.

• Here is a right-angle concrete arrow from Beacon 50 visible in Montello, Nevada.

• The Newark-Heath Airport in Ohio has the well-preserved example in Beacon 2 of the Columbus-Philadelphia route, circa 1933 (courtesy S-I reader Chris Little).

• A restored beacon tower is part of a protected monument in Rocky Butte Natural Area of Portland, Oregon (courtesy S-I reader Scott Kessler, beacon number unknown).

• The Reidville area of South Carolina has a visible arrow from Beacon 14, originally of the Atlanta–New York line and circa 1935. The arrow is also clearly visible in Google Street view (courtesy S-I reader Chris Little).

• The concrete arrow from Salt Flat Intermediate Field is barely visible in lonely Salt Flat, Texas. This emergency landing field was another product of the Department of Commerce in the 1930s. This page has more detail on the now-defunct Salt Flat Intermediate Field.

Cottrill-1 Cottrill-2

• The remains of a beacon power shed are keeping a concrete arrow company tucked away in the hills off I-15 in San Bernardino County, California not far from Halloran Summit. (photos above courtesy S-I readers Paula and Travis Cottrill. Beacon number unknown)

• Two miles northwest of Seama, New Mexico, the concrete arrow of Beacon 64 sits behind Flower Mountain, not far from Interstate 40.

airmail-beacon-37A-BloomingtonOverlook• A concrete arrow sits in good condition at Shelbyville Municipal Airport about 25 miles southeast of Indianapolis in Indiana (beacon number unknown).

• Another concrete arrow – this one from Beacon 37B – can be seen on the south edge of the Shinob Kibe Mesa in Utah.

• The concrete arrow from Beacon 37A is visible from the Bloomington Overlook location in St. George, Utah. (photo at right)

•  A concrete arrow is all that’s left of Beacon 37C at the Quail Creek Reservoir in Utah between Hurricane and St. George.

• A restored tower is on display in Indian Mounds Park of St. Paul, Minnesota. This 1929 example has recently been re-painted to its original black & yellow livery. (courtesy S-I reader Gerald Kackman, detailed information about this beacon can be found here)

• The faint outline of a concrete arrow is still visible just off German Road in Steward, Illinois (courtesy S-I reader Jeremy Nesemeier, beacon number unknown).

• The concrete arrow by Strevell Road near the Idaho/Utah border is clearly visible along with the foundations of other facilities, now gone (beacon number unknown).

Beacon 45a• Beacon 14A is still overlooking US-80 in the Tahoe National Forest in California. The concrete arrow is gone, but the tower remains. A newer building has replaced the generator shed next to the tower.

• Just outside the Toiyabe National Forest in Reno, a concrete arrow is barely visible and in poor condition (beacon number unknown).

• Between Trinidad, Colorado and Raton, New Mexico, a complete specimen sits in relatively good condition. El Paso Puebla Airway Beacon 45 (photo above right). (addition & photo courtesy S-I reader Marc @

• Little other than the tower’s foundation of Beacon 5 is still visible in Vacaville, California.

airmail-beacon-pat-elliott• A two-arrow, two-tail beacon is vandalized, but visible in Walnut Creek, California. (courtesy S-I reader Bob Simmons, beacon number unknown)

• North of Weed, California the remains of a concrete arrow are on private property, but still visible. (courtesy S-I reader Corey Scysen, beacon number unknown)

• The well-preserved tower of airway Beacon 32 is still in use at Winnemucca Municipal Airport in northern Nevada. You can even see this pristine example in street view. (No concrete arrow or generator shed)

• A modern antenna system has been built on top of an old concrete arrow in Wolf Creek, Oregon. (tip & photo above right courtesy S-I reader Pat Elliott, beacon number unknown)

• In Woods Cross, Utah, there is a concrete arrow northeast of the Salt Lake City Airport (beacon number unknown).



Air Traveler’s Map, 1929

“Illustrated Map of the Route of Transcontinental Air Transport,” Rand McNally, 1929. Courtesy David Rumsey Map Collection.

Click thumbnail to view full-size (warning: large file)


Click here to see the 1945 Civil Aeronautics Administration Air Marking Guide (warning: 45-page pdf). Big thanks to Steve Owen from for sharing this with us!


Do you know of another airway beacon or concrete arrow not listed here but still visible? Contact us with the coordinates and we’ll update the list!



  1. What a fascinating story! Those early planes must have been flying quite low, the concrete arrows aren’t the easiest to see. I guess it would have been easier with the tower attached.

    I hope some of these are preserved for posterity, this is such an important part of American history.

    Great stuff, as usual, sometimes interesting…

      • The one pictured at St. George, Utah looks very idyllic in the photo supplied. When you google earth it and zoom out, it’s surrounded by new developments and golf courses. It may not last too much longer…

  2. Being the sort of blowhard know it all who prides himself on knowing about all sorts of obscure things, I’m kind of embarrassed I’ve not heard of these before. And I’m with Alex above; those early planes couldn’t have been flying over a thousand feet. That arrow disappears quickly on that google earth map. Great piece as always.

    • The arrows do disappear quickly today, but at the time they were painted bright yellow. I’m sure that made them easier to see, albeit not much. But you’re right, even with a good condition example they’re still difficult to see on satellite view. I’d imagine the lighted beacon towers at night were more helpful than the yellow arrows during the day.

  3. I read about these on another blog recently, but it’s always worth getting your perspective on things. Whereas much of the internet is about showing you as many strange/pretty things as possible with little explanation, you flesh out the details without giving an information overload. Thanks!

  4. Great article – I had no idea that these structures existed. The 90-degree angle arrow is interesting – hard left or right on the rudder to make the change of direction!

  5. Reblogged this on Graham's Blog and commented:
    A fascinating and informative article. I had no idea that such structures existed. Hopefully some will survive encroaching development and the effects of nature.

  6. It wasn’t that the beacons/route became too big for Post Office Department to handle. The Kelly Act of 1926 transferred all airmail routes from public hand to private contractors.

  7. Very nice summary of the history – more accurate than many – and literally covering a lot of ground. Google Earth is improving in quality all the time! Your links to map/sat images are very well done. Our Grants-Milan museum website has some newer pics now – more authentic beacon eqpt and the new roof on the CAA building is completed (but trees are all bare). Open in Saturdays thru winter….

    • Why thank you Steve, this is high praise coming from you. I can’t tell you how much I appreciate your feedback.

      Thank you for the updated information. I hope you don’t mind I’ve gone ahead and updated the picture and included a link to the beacon’s page on the CCHS site. I’ve also fixed the omission of Grants from the name; now it should say “Grants-Milan.” Cheers!

  8. Many fire lookouts had numbers painted on their roofs, some associated with a beacon, some not. Does anyone know more about this?

    • We do have a CAA “Air Marking” manual in pdf dated 1945 that includes specific guidelines for painting forest tower roofs with a north arrow and coordinates. This style became the norm for CAA structures (generator sheds, flight service stations, etc) in the mid-late ’40’s. We used the template models from this handbook to paint site coordinates on our new museum roof.

      Can’t attach the page image here….but contact us at if you’d like the manual in pdf.

      • Thanks Steve. If there’s anything you feel would be beneficial to this story and you’d allow me to post (text, images, attachments, etc), I’d be happy to add it to the article with appropriate credit/link backs to your page.

  9. Who knows, maybe in a thousand years future humans will come upon these concrete arrows and will surmise that these are the works of aliens for navigation purposes.

  10. I have been researching these for several years. By my count, there are 75 arrows still in existence. The vast majority of these are in the west. However, I have found arrows in Indiana, Ohio, Kentucky, and Pennsylvania. If any of your readers would like to contribute their notes, photos, and/or possible sites, I would be very greatful.

    • I owned a beacon tower on my property outside of Oak Harbor, OH I just had an offer from an owner of a near by airport. I am thinking about selling to him and would like it appraised. Does anyone know the worth of these towers and also are they worth more to stay on original property? Joann

  11. For those interested, I have a KML file and an Excel spreadsheet of all the know arrows. Since my last post, I have added two more for a total of 77 arrows. To request a copy send an email to

      • Many beacon sites with arrows were abandoned before the NGS /CGS did surveys. Here in NM, the 1929 mid-continent airway route laid out by Lindbergh for TAT was mostly realigned in 1930-31. The sites were stripped and beacons relocated. But by 1932 the CAA was no longer building arrows for most new sites. In some cases (CAA airfields) metal arrows, raised above the snow, were installed.

      • Hello Skye, thanks for the share! I actually had several KML files linked in the article when it was first posted, but I had to remove them because the creators/owners were unhappy I was linking them here.

        I’ll defer to Ray and Steve for that stuff; they can speak intelligently on the subject and point people in the right direction. :-)

      • LF1332
        Designation: AMBER AIRWAY 4 BEACON 7
        Coordinates: 40.10097392, -95.08517628 This tower is still here no arrow just looked 2/14/15 nw Missouri

  12. Interesting article as I grew up in a home with one of the beacons on our property. It is still standing, but not working. Years ago our local paper ran an article about it and the history behind it. We always used it as a landmark to find our house when telling visitors how to find us.

    • Would you expand on your memories of the beacon? Where was the property? Any details about the beacon would be very helpful. Thanks,

      • Shari, of the April 14th comments is my daughter. I remember when the beacon light was working in the fifities. The beacon light is located 3 miles south of Oak Harbor, OH. The comment on Nov. 15th is mine also. Joann

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