Ochamchire Abkhazia: Casualty of War


On the east coast of the Black Sea, about 125 miles (200km) south of Sochi, sits the shell of a once-vibrant town. Ochamchire (also Ochamchira) was once a pleasant coastal retreat in Georgia, but an ethnic war following the dissolution of the former Soviet Union resulted in the territory becoming largely abandoned.

Now the city is part of the Abkhazia Republic, and less than a tenth of the city’s pre-war population remains. With entire city blocks abandoned, Ochamchire is a shell of its former self. Today many of those who stayed are trying to take care of what’s left for a population that won’t return. 

cover photo courtesy Urbanomica


Map It!



ochamchire abkhaziaThe mountainous territory of the Greater Caucasus in northwestern Georgia is as beautiful as the region’s history is turbulent.

Not far are the eastern coastlines of the Black Sea, which offer hundreds of miles of sandy beaches with spectacular water views. Today this region is the partially recognized republic of Abkhazia, however it was a territory of Georgia until 1992.

Abkhazia has a rich history – both figuratively and literally – as it was once a Greek colony and later one of the wealthiest provinces in the former Soviet Union. Ochamchire was the site of the ancient Greek colony settlement of Guenos. Later, the Romans left baths and medieval defensive stone walls still visible today. After the Roman occupation the region saw a decline; by the thirteenth century the ancient Greek city became overgrown.

In the fourteenth century Genoese merchants established a trading post on the site of present-day Ochamchire. Known as Ala Gunda, the market became celebrated for its craftsmanship and sword trade. After the Turkish invasion came decades of Turkish occupation. Turkish influence led to a renaming of the site: Oshimshir (later Ochamchire), from the Turkish “shamshir,” or sabre.

Abkhazia coast during Balkan War, 1877


Conflict After Fall of U.S.S.R.

ochamchire abkhazia
courtesy Rob Hornstra

Behind the economic growth of the twentieth century was a burgeoning divide between two groups: Those native to the Abkhaz region and the ethnic Georgians. Northwestern Georgia was a war zone for much of the 1990s, and the result was a separate state. A de-facto, independent, and only partially recognized republic named Abkhazia.

The Abkhaz people consider their independence a liberation from Georgia, while Georgians believe that historically, Abkhazia has always been part of Georgia, and thus this was a secession. Regional tension had been high before, but when the Soviet Union was officially dissolved in 1991 it sparked revolutionary power struggles around its many republic states.

What followed in Georgia was an ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia. Before the Georgian-Abkhaz Conflict, Georgians formed the largest ethnic group in Abkhazia, accounting for 45.7% of the population.

In 1992 a military confrontation between the Georgian government and Abkhaz separatists would begin a two-year war, leaving the separatists the victors.

photos courtesy Urbanomica

I lived in Abkhazia 15 years ago, in the small town of Akhaldaba, Ochamchire district. Abkhaz attacked our village on September 16th, 1993. IT WAS IMPOSSIBLE TO HIDE anywhere from the bullets which rained down on us.”

Leila Goletiani, prisoner of Abkhaz separatists

Ochamchire Abkhazia


New Republic of Abkhazia & Reaction

By the summer of 1993 the physical fighting in the Caucasus slowed as the war came to an end. The Abkhaz separatists had won but paid a price for freedom. Abkhazia had lost its industry, two-thirds of its population, and was in ruins.

The new de-facto independent state of Abkhazia was only recognized by Russia, not the United Nations or the world at large. This meant no trade with the rest of the free world, leaving Abkhaz towns such as Ochamchire without a “legal” economy. That side effect would result in the departure of not only ethnic Georgians, but also the Abkhaz themselves, as many left searching for jobs and better opportunity.

courtesy Yury Popkov
courtesy urbanomica
Abandoned Abkhazia
courtesy Rob Hornstra

Amputating the region from Georgia cost an estimated 8,000 to 10,000 lives and displaced roughly 250,000 Georgians. More than 20,000 homes owned by ethnic Georgians were destroyed. Hundreds of churches, historical monuments, hospitals, and schools were also pillaged and destroyed.

The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) has recognized the ethnic cleansing thrice: First in 1994 at the Budapest summit, then in 1996 in Lisbon, and again in 1997 in Istanbul.

A 1994 report from the U.S. State Department described the actions:

The [Abkhaz] separatist forces committed widespread atrocities against the Georgian civilian population, killing many women, children, and elderly, capturing some as hostages and torturing others … they also killed large numbers of Georgian civilians who remained behind in Abkhaz-seized territory … Those fleeing Abkhazia made highly credible claims of atrocities, including the killing of civilians without regard for age or sex. Corpses recovered from Abkhaz-held territory showed signs of extensive torture

photos courtesy Urbanomica

In March of 2006 the Hague War Crimes Tribunal announced the results from its full-scale investigation. The Tribunal concluded it would prosecute and start hearings against the separatists who had committed war crimes.

By May of 2008 the United Nations officially recognized the atrocities when it adopted resolution A/RES/62/249, which emphasizes the importance of preserving the property rights of refugees and internally displaced persons from Abkhazia.”

Abandoned Airport

photos courtesy Urbanomica

In July of 2008 Abkhaz separatists rejected a German-mediated peace plan and refused to attend peace talks in Berlin.

Russia has continued to get involved, and not always for the better. In 2008 the country sent troops into Abkhazia without obtaining the legal consent of Georgia. The following year Russia planned to establish a Black Sea naval base at the port of Ochamchire, however plans were later abandoned when it was announced they were not practical.

ochamchira abkhazia gas masks
A warehouse of gas masks (courtesy urbanomica)


Ochamchire District

Ochamchire Abkhazia
courtesy Tasha Bordeaux

The city of Ochamchire (Abkhaz: Очамчыра, Ochamchyra; Georgian: ოჩამჩირე, Ochamchire; Russian: Очамчира, Ochamchira) is the administrative center of the eponymous district.

It first earned city status in 1926, although it hosted a Batumi Black Sea border ship detachment since 1923. In 1967 it became the base of the 6th separate border patrol brigade (which later relocated in 1996).

While under the Soviet umbrella the region experienced relative prosperity. From 1921 until 1931 Abkhazia enjoyed the same status as Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, and other Soviet republics. It gained factories, ports, and a railroad, resulting in an economic boom.

Canning, farming, oil, tea, and tobacco all became major industries.

photos courtesy abandonedplaces.livejournal.net

But Ochamchire would suffer heavy losses throughout the conflict. Numbers vary, but it is estimated 400 Georgian families were killed in Ochamchire during the Abkhaz offensive. The Kochara district alone saw 1,000 homes destroyed.

courtesy Granta

[ See official Abkhaz website for Ochamchire ]


Ochamchire Today

Ochamchire Abkhazia
courtesy Tasha Bordeaux

Physical conflict has subsided although the region is far from healed. Ochamchire still maintains a small population which acts as a skeleton crew to keep portions of the town operating and tidy.

But most of the town is eerily empty. You wouldn’t know the town was occupied if not for the occasional sound of a woman sweeping her porch. Visitors have reported seeing more stray animals than people.

The majority of town still wears scars from war. Almost everything have been vacated; empty houses still have outlines of flames above blackened windowless frames. Roofs seem to be sporadically missing tiles, some offer vegetation a place to escape from inside.

Roads were shelled into Swiss cheese, and the town’s train station is still in shambles. The stump of a sculpture sits in front of a destroyed hospital, robbed of its feature decades ago. Soot stains are tattooed across entire neighborhoods as a grim reminder of the town’s past.

Mokvi cathedral ochamchireSome homes had effects left behind, items that managed to escape the pillaging over twenty years ago; an old TV or typewriter here, a broken desk or wardrobe there.

Despite the turbulent history there are places in the district worth visiting if one has the opportunity, including the aforementioned ruins of the ancient Greek colony of Guenos, the giant Abriskila Cave with its underground stream Achkitizgo, and the ancient Mokvi Cathedral (pictured above right).

Tourism opportunities are understandably limited with the economic choke-hold on the region, but the people who remain are warm. Much of the youth lack their parents’ vitriol toward the other side. Elders vividly remember the war; nobody is proud of it. Few can easily or often discuss such matters.

ochamchire abkhazia

Hopefully lessons are learned. Similar to the forced-evacuation of the abandoned resort in Varosha, Cyprus, the Georgians separated from their homes in Abkhazia were merely collateral damage to a greater ideological difference. It is a shame that such disagreements can prevent coexistence.

One has to wonder if the result is better than the previous arrangement. Did the removal of ethnic Georgians improve things for the Abkhaz? If the fortunes of Ochamchire and its former residents are any indication, it would appear not.

Tbilisi, GEORGIA, 2010 - A refugee kommunalka on the outskirts of Tbilisi. A kommunalka is a apartment building in which dwellers share facilities like toilet and kitchen. Until the early nineties this building was used as students housing. After the Georgian - Abkhazian war in 92-93 the building was occupied by Georgian refugees from Abkhazia and this situation didn't change.
A refugee kommunalka in Tbilisi. A kommunalka is an apartment building with shared kitchen & bath. This building was used as student housing until the Georgia-Abkhazia war of 1992-93, when it became home to Georgian refugees from Abkhazia. (courtesy Rob Hornstra)


Watch: A Drive through Ochamchire


An Abkhazia poem courtesy S-I reader Noctua:

“The town is mostly silent now,
though the scars still left run deep.
Ethnic cleansing not the sort of mess,
that can be washed away with bleach.”

“To the victors go the spoils,
revenge is a dish best served cold,
while in the survivors lives they toil,
for everyone eventually grows old.”



    • Thanks, good to know the video was helpful! I’m always tinkering with what I include in the articles, trying to find a good balance between too much information and helpful additions. Feedback on what I include or fail to include is always appreciated. Cheers!

  1. I had not heard of this place either, thanks for sharing. I like the maps you have been putting at the top of each article, thanks for doing that.

  2. great article but what a shame. i love your articles but sometimes they’re bleak and dreary. this is one of those times.

    • Yeah sorry about that Pop. Abandoned places don’t often have happy endings. These places are dour by nature when in decay. My hope is by recalling the busier times we remember the places when they were vibrant.

      At least that is the goal.

    • Answers to both questions are yes and no. I would not visit unless I was familiar with the region. During my research I did see quite a few Russians visit the country, entering from the north. Those folks had arranged to have a local Abkhaz person take them on a personal tour. This isn’t something you can book on Expedia, however, so unless you are Russian or have friends in Sochi I would probably not consider visiting at this time.

      I did not see anything about patrols in my research, however I did see notices of gates with guards near the borders. But the Russian tourists were able to get through, so I cannot speak to how strict the guards are or what they are particularly guarding against.

      • I am an American and spent most of August 2015 in Abkhazia and a good deal of that in Ochamchira. I can say without hesitation it is perfectly safe and all the people I met were friendly. The border at Inguri was interesting to cross but there was no difficulty in either direction. I think it’s safe to say the break up of the Soviet Union and what followed has caused economic hardship for millions of people. In Abkazia it’s independence from Georgia has caused it to pay a high price. The enforce mbargo which Georgia has pushed did not help. The Georgian side of the border in Zugdidi seems ready to live and let live but the politics in Sumhumi and Tblisis have a different view. I seem to have digressed, from saying Abkhazia is perfectly safe for tourism and it certainly is a beautiful place. David Smith, King Ferry, New York

        • Thanks for this valuable feedback David, good to know. I have never been and could only repeat what I had read online posted by others; thanks for your first-hand account. I agree with you about the unfortunate result of economic hardship for millions, I hope that some day soon the region can find stability and prosperity again. Cheers for the comment!

  3. That cathedral is gorgeous. Too bad tourism isn’t a thing, I wouldn’t mind visiting.

  4. “The town is mostly silent now,
    though the scars still left run deep.
    Ethnic cleansing not the sort of mess,
    that can be washed away with bleach.”

    “To the victors go the spoils,
    revenge is a dish best served cold,
    while in the survivors lives they toil,
    for everyone eventually grows old.”

      • Feel free to add anything, anytime.

        And no, no, its your extensive writing that makes the site stand out as a pleasure to read, please don’t change your style to be more like mine.

        The Wiki page you linked to, about the War Crimes in the region, was a tough piece to read, harsh and horrific as it was, though I’m glad you linked to it, instead of writing about it in the article here.

        PS – While just FYI the Abriskila Cave link does not appear to link correctly?

        • Thanks Noctua, appreciate that. Yes there were much harsher itmes I chose not to include; the message is already conveyed in the article without needing to go into detail. The quote from the female prisoner goes into grotesque detail. I did not want to re-print it here. Thanks for the heads up on the Abriskila cave link, I have fixed it!

  5. This is like urbex on steroids, so much to see and explore. It reminds me of a non-nuclear version of fallout. Those poor residents. Megaton, here I come…

    • Hey potedude, good to hear from you again! Agree, I wouldn’t mind having a few hours to explore the town. Almost like Pripyat, but without the radiation fears. 100% agree your sentiment about the residents. Regardless of one’s belief system or ethnicity, this was a great tragedy.

  6. Hi just wondering, the photo that shows what looks to be like drain hole grates attached to some sought of rubber, what is it really?

      • Thanks for the info. The entire scene in the photo reminds me of something you would come across in a post-apocalyptic themed computer game ( think Fallout) To se a real life photo of something like this is a little disturbing.

        • Ha, a similar thought had crossed my mind. 😉
          I think it’s just in pockets though – other communities have larger populations and appear more vibrant. Nothing close to before the war, though.

  7. This is fabulous. I’d love to visit this place. I feel like your article gave me an intellectual picture of Ochamchire, but I feel like the actual tastes, smells and sounds of the place would be amazing.


  8. Fascinating but a terrible monument to our ability to destroy ourselves. For the ‘victors’ of the Georgia-Abkhazia war the spoils of victory must be a terrible place to live in, and to know what they did to get it.

    • “A terrible monument to our ability to destroy ourselves.” Well said my friend! And yes, I’d venture to guess these days many feel it’s not a victory to be celebrated. Thanks for the comment!

  9. I spent the month of August 2015 in Ochamchira. It is completely safe, the people are friendly, the sea was warm, the mountains beautiful. That being said the city is trying to come back, but after 20+ years of embargo nothing has been easy and there is a long long way to go. The war like all wars was hell for everyone, Abkhaz as well as Georgians. It is still a wound that is in the process of healing. It has been slow to heal but the healing has started. It will be 100 years before it is complete if then. You can visit Abkhazia either from Russia or Georgia either way is easy and perfectly safe.

    • David, thanks for sharing with us the first-hand account. It is good to know things have gotten better – at least enough for visitation. Glad to hear you enjoyed your trip, I can believe you as I never read anything negative about the beauty of the region. Thanks for the comment, cheers.

  10. Another well written article. The imagery is amazing; it appears to once have been a beautiful city. The combination of photographs, video, quotes, and poems add to the story you are telling- perfect!

  11. Hi,
    I am doing research about abandonment in human settlements (and brownfields)
    Currently, I am focused on 19th and 20th century towns founded in era and location of mining fever / planned economy / one dominating purpose,.that have already gone through the development climax and demographic maximum; towns that are loosing population and have been shrinking in past decades..
    It will be a great help if you could give me any advice on getting any of Town plan, Town development plan, original /historical development plan, or redirecting me to anyone who may be helpful in this topic.
    maybe we can communicate via e-mail.
    Thank you for any info.

    • Hello Alena – sounds like you are looking for company towns, or towns established by a company for a single purpose. There are hundreds of good candidates. In the United States there are cities such as Detroit, Michicgan and Gary, Indiana – both still “alive” but much smaller from their industrial peaks nearly sixty years ago. Unfortunately I don’t have town development plans on these places, but a good place to look might be the district you want to research’s library, their chamber of commerce, or a local historical society. I’ve used each of these methods before to obtain information about places, each requires no more than a phone call or email. Feel free to email me if you have additional questions or if I can be of further help. My email address is on our contact page. Cheers, and good luck.

  12. I have always been intrigued by other parts of the world. Especially unfamiliar parts.

    At this point, I do hope the ethnic Abkhazians and ethnic Georgians can mend their differences and live peacefully.

    Ochamchire clearly is a beautiful city. This whole region is very pretty.

    This city and entire region has potential so long as no more war.

    If properly carried out, imagine this city and surrounding cities (Tkvarcheli, Akarmara) as examples being restored.

    These citizens of both Georgia and Abkhazia have beautiful cultures and a lot to offer to all.

    Stephen H. Darden

    • Thank you for the thoughtful comment Stephen. I agree, it would be a wonderful thing if the residents could mend their differences and find a way to coexist peacefully. The people deserve it. Thanks for stopping by.

      • One step in the right direction is for the US to recognize Abkhazia as an independent nation.

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.